Grupo de Pesquisa "Política e Política Pública de Saúde"/CNPQ
Research Group "Politics and Public Health Policy"/CNPQ
Confira artigo do Grupo publicado no anuário do congresso (Political Studies Association): MODALITIES OF REPRESENTATIVENESS AND LEVELS OF IDENTIFICATION IN PUBLIC POLICY: COEFFICIENTS OF LEGITIMACY FRAMEWORK
May 3, 2016
Este artigo consiste em resumo do projeto de pesquisa guarda-chuva em andamento pelo grupo, e é de autoria dos pesquisadores principais: Fabiana C. Saddi, Matthew J. Harris e Raquel Abrantes Pêgo. Apresenta uma proposta metodológica interpretativa de análise em política pública, a qual lança mão de métodos mistos, e encontra-se sendo aplicada (como projeto piloto) para analisar a política de atenção primária à saúde (Estratégia Saúde da Família) em Goiânia (cidade piloto). O mesmo projeto encontra-se em expansão para outra cidade. Nesta proposta valoriza-se a problemática do gap entre elaboração e implementação, analisando as distintas percepções/valores e atuações dos atores atuantes no policymaking, de um lado, e na implementação, de outro. Foram realizadas entrevistas abertas com gestores e apoiadores distritais, e questionários semi-estruturados (gerentes locais e equipe de saúde - médicos, enfermeiros e ACSs) e surveys (usuários) com atores de linha de frente na implementação da ESF. Veja o resumo (abstract) do artigo logo a baixo.
This paper presents the ‘coefficients of legitimacy framework’ to assess the politics of public policies in distinct socio-political contexts. It explores the relationships existent between two macro and interpretatively constructed variables: ‘modalities of representativeness’ in policymaking and ‘levels of identification’ in micro politics (frontline actors). It develops a new comprehensive type of measurement and comparison, in which comprehensiveness requires a greater understanding. Interviews are conducted with national/local policymakers and surveys applied to frontline actors. It is guided by one main question: What are the levels of responsiveness between the politics of policymaking and the micro politics of implementation? It is currently being applied (as pilot project) in the analysis of primary healthcare in Goiania-Brazil. Goiania is understood as paradigmatic case of implementation in regional capitals in Brazil.
This paper has been divided in three main sections. Firstly, we present how mapping of actors and institutions are used to classify distinct ‘modalities of representativeness’ (in policymaking) with respect to societies’ values and interests in the formulation of new guidelines in primary healthcare in Brazil. Classification of four probable ‘modalities of representativeness’ are done taking into account degrees of tensions between ideas/interests and frontline actors’ identity (institutional capabilities and institutionalised patterns of socialisation) in Goiania. Those tensions are associated with points in the obedience-rejection continuum, on a scale that ranges from null to full correspondence. These points are interpreted as possibilities of translating policies into effective practice, and used in the formulation of hypotheses and analyses.
Secondly, we focus on the construction of the second variable and its sub-variables: the general mean level of identification, attributed to front line actors, and the disaggregated mean levels of identification, related to the three micro dimensions selected (local managers, heath teams and users). Degrees of conflict existing between guidelines and realization will be used as analytical criteria in the definition of four probable levels of identification (possibilities of implementing the legalities constructed by macro-politics) with macro/micro policy-making. Data gathered from questionnaires and statistics will be organised so as to position actors in one of the four levels of identification, and to come up with an average level of identification for each sanitary district and city. ‘Levels’ will be connected with points in the acceptance-rejection continuum.
We will afterwards explore how the identification point can be associated to the representativeness point in the legitimacy continuum. The distance between both points in the continuum will be interpreted as coefficients of political legitimacy of the policy. Legitimacy is defined in terms of levels of true acceptance and effective realisation, leading to distinct but closer proximities between macro and micro spheres/actors. The proposition is that the closer the representativeness point is to the identification point in the continuum, the higher the level of responsiveness and legitimacy construction of the policy would be.
This method intends to construct evidences on how it would have been possible to promote higher levels of political reciprocity in public policy. It can be used to inform policy and anticipate problems to which policy will need to respond.
Alguns resultados preliminares já foram publicados por alunos em iniciação científica, em Congresso realizado na FCS/UFG, em novembro.